当细支气管(肺中的空气输送管)发炎并产生过多粘液时,就会发生支气管炎. 的re are two basic types of 支气管炎:

  • 慢性支气管炎 是指一年中咳痰持续三个月并至少连续两年. 咳嗽和炎症可能由最初的呼吸道感染或疾病引起, 接触:接触烟草烟雾或空气中其他刺激性物质. 慢性支气管炎可引起气流阻塞,因此被归为慢性支气管炎的一种 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Acute or short-term 支气管炎 is more common and usually is caused by a viral infection. 急性支气管炎的发作可能与吸烟有关,并因吸烟而加重. 急性支气管炎可持续10至14天,症状可能持续3周.

Mucus in the bronchial tubes when you have 支气管炎

Excess mucus in the bronchial tubes

What is the difference between 支气管炎 and 肺炎?

In terms of symptoms, these two diseases may seem very similar. 两者都会引起咳嗽、发烧、疲劳和胸痛. 支气管炎 can sometimes progress to 肺炎.

Despite similarities, the conditions are different. 第一个, 支气管炎 involves the bronchial tubes, while 肺炎 affects the alveoli, or the air sacs in the 肺s. Second, 肺炎 symptoms are usually much worse. 除了, 肺炎 can be life-threatening, especially in older people and other vulnerable groups.




通常, acute 支气管炎 is brought on by a viral infection, though it may also be caused by a bacterial infection. 的 流感 and colds are examples of viral infections.

慢性支气管炎通常是由吸烟引起的,但并不总是如此. 它也可能由暴露于二手烟、空气污染、灰尘或有毒气体引起. 你的风险可能会增加家族历史的支气管炎,有 哮喘和过敏,有 gastroesophageal re流感x disease (GERD).

What are the symptoms of 支气管炎?

Symptoms of 支气管炎 include:

  • A 咳嗽 that is frequent and produces mucus.
  • 缺乏活力.
  • A 喘息 sound when breathing (may or may not be present).
  • A 发热 (may or may not be present).
  • 呼吸急促(气促).


急性支气管炎具有传染性,因为它通常是由病毒或细菌感染引起的. 慢性支气管炎不太可能是传染性的,因为它通常是由呼吸道的长期刺激引起的.

How long are you contagious if you have acute 支气管炎?

If you have begun taking antibiotics for 支气管炎, 通常在开始服药24小时后,你就不再具有传染性了. 如果你患有病毒性支气管炎,抗生素是不起作用的. 你的传染性会持续至少几天,甚至可能长达一周.

How is acute 支气管炎 spread?

If 支气管炎 is caused by a viral or bacterial infection, 它的传播方式与感冒的传播方式相同——通过人们咳嗽或打喷嚏时空气中的细菌传播. You can breathe the germs in if you are close enough. You could also touch something that has germs on it, 像一个门, then transfer the germs by touching your nose, 嘴或眼睛. 这就是为什么良好的洗手习惯对成人和儿童都很重要.


How is 支气管炎 diagnosed?

你的医疗服务提供者会给你做一个身体检查并记录病史. 的y may ask if you have had a cold recently, how long your 咳嗽 has lasted, if you produce mucus when you 咳嗽. 除了, they may order a 胸部x光片上呼吸道分泌物病毒检测或血液检测.



的 treatment for 支气管炎 depends on what type you have. 如果你有cute 支气管炎, you might not need any treatment. 或者你可以使用非处方药来分解粘液或治疗发烧或疼痛. 如果你有细菌感染,你的医生可能会开抗生素.

If you have chronic 支气管炎, treatment will be different. 慢性支气管炎被认为是慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD),是不可治愈的. 症状可以用多种方法治疗,包括药物、氧疗、 肺康复, surgery, or a combination of these. Your doctor might prescribe a mucus clearing device, also called an airway clearance device, to help you bring up mucus easily.

What medications are used to treat chronic 支气管炎/COPD?


  • 抗生素 治疗由感染引起的咳嗽、呼吸困难和粘液分泌加剧.
  • 抗炎药,如 糖皮质激素 (also called steroids), to reduce swelling and mucus output. Steroids can have many different types of side effects, including swelling in feet and hands, 情绪变化, increased appetite and weight gain, 睡眠问题, more serious ones such as 糖尿病, higher risk of infections, 骨质疏松症, 白内障.
  • 支气管扩张剂 让气道周围的肌肉放松,这样气道就保持开放. 有长效和 short-acting bronchodilators. 短效药物通常被称为救援药物,因为它们作用迅速, but wear off in a couple of hours.
  • 组合药物 含有类固醇和长效或短效支气管扩张剂的混合物

How can I take care of myself?


  • 每一到两个小时喝液体,除非你的医生限制你的液体摄入量.
  • 休息.
  • 不要吸烟. Stay away from all kinds of smoke.
  • Relieve body aches by taking aspirin or acetaminophen.
  • 按照医生的指示来帮助你清除粘液.
  • 如果你有 咳嗽 that is severe or keeps you from sleeping, 你的医生可能会开一种止咳药来抑制(或平息)你的咳嗽. 如果你有 dry 咳嗽 or difficulty 咳嗽ing out the mucus, 你的医生也可能会开一些祛痰药来帮助放松和咳出粘液.
  • 如果你有湿气, productive 咳嗽 (with mucus), 注意你咳嗽的频率, as well as the color and amount of the sputum (mucus). 向你的医生报告.
  • 使用一个加湿器.
  • 试试花草茶或柠檬水,加入1-2汤匙蜂蜜,让你感觉舒适.


What can I do to reduce my risk of getting 支气管炎?

  • 不要吸烟.
  • Insist that others do not smoke in your home.
  • 远离或尽量减少你在刺激你的呼吸道(鼻子)的东西周围的时间, 喉咙, 和肺). 刺激物包括灰尘、霉菌、宠物皮屑、空气污染、烟雾和清洁剂.
  • If you catch a cold, get plenty of rest.
  • Take your medicine exactly the way your doctor tells you.
  • 健康饮食.
  • 勤洗手. 使用肥皂和水. 如果你不能使用肥皂和水,请使用含有酒精的洗手液.
  • Make sure you are up-to-date on the 流感 and 肺炎 vaccines.


What is the outlook for people with 支气管炎?

患有急性支气管炎的人一般很少有问题,只要他们得到他们需要的治疗. 在康复期间,你可以在家休息几天,不去上班或上学.

Although chronic 支气管炎/COPD cannot be cured, 它的症状可以治疗,你的生活质量可以提高. 你的预测, 或展望, 因为未来将取决于你的肺功能和症状. 这也取决于你对治疗计划的反应和遵循情况.


When should I see my healthcare provider?

It is often difficult to know whether you have a cold, 支气管炎, or 肺炎 because symptoms are similar. See your healthcare provider if you have:

  • A cold that lasts more than two to three weeks.
  • A 发热 greater than 102° F.
  • A 发热 that lasts more than five days.
  • 咳嗽引起的咳嗽 .
  • Any shortness of breath or 喘息.
  • A change in the color of mucus.

If you have chronic 支气管炎/COPD, 选择能促进身心健康的生活方式和活动. 建议包括:

  • Working as long as you are able to do so.
  • Managing your emotional health. Talk to a counselor if you need to do so. 作出积极的改变, 喜欢外出, staying involved with friends and hobbies, 睡个好觉,听从医疗保健提供者的建议.
  • Being a partner in your healthcare plan.
  • Asking for support from family and friends.
  • 通过锻炼和练习放松的方法来管理压力.
  • 吃好.



  • National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. 支气管炎. (http://www.nhlbi.国家卫生研究院.gov/health-topics/支气管炎) 访问8/13/2019.
  • 美国肺协会. 慢性支气管炎. (http://www.肺.org/肺-health-and-diseases/肺-disease-lookup/chronic-支气管炎/) 访问8/13/2019.
  • 美国肺协会. 急性支气管炎. (http://www.肺.org/肺-health-diseases/肺-disease-lookup/支气管炎) 访问4/15/2020.
  • 疾病控制中心 & 预防. 支气管炎. (http://www.疾病预防控制中心.gov /使用抗生素/社区/患者/常见病/支气管炎.html) 访问8/13/2019.
  • Lefebvre连续波. Lefebvre C.W. Lefebvre,塞德里克W.急性支气管炎 and Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. 见:Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski J, Ma O, Yealy DM科勒GD, Cline DM. Tintinalli J.E., Stapczynski J, Ma O, Yealy D.M.科勒G.D., Cline D.M. Eds. 朱迪斯·E. Tintinalli等.eds. 丁丁纳利的急诊医学:综合学习指南,8e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2016

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